How Scottish Presbyterians became so powerful in England

In January 1644, the Scottish army was sent into England to directly intervene in the Civil War in Parliament’s favour. The Scots became aligned with the Presbyterians at Westminster, where they generated the political ideas which shaped much of Parliament’s war effort.

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The World Turned Upside Down
The World Turned Upside Down - The British Civil Wars 1638-1651
How Scottish Presbyterians became so powerful in England
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Laura Stewart

Professor in Early Modern History

Laura A.M. Stewart is Professor in Early Modern History & Head of Department. Before joining the Department of History at York in 2016, she taught for ten…

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Further reading

John Adamson, ‘The triumph of oligarchy: the management of war and the Committee of Both Kingdoms, 1644-45’ in Chris R. Kyle and Jason Peacey, eds, Parliament at Work: Parliamentary Committees, Political Power and Public Access in Early Modern England (Woodbridge, 2002).
Ann Hughes, Gangraena and the Struggle for the English Revolution (Oxford, 2004).
John J. Scally, ‘The rise and fall of the Covenanter parliaments, 1639–51’ in Keith M. Brown and Alastair J. Mann, eds, The History of the Scottish Parliament: Volume 2. Parliament and Politics in Scotland, 1567–1707 (Edinburgh, 2005).
David Scott, ‘The “Northern Gentlemen”, the parliamentary Independents and Anglo-Scottish relations in the Long Parliament’, Historical Journal, 42 (1999).
Laura A.M. Stewart, ‘English funding of the Scottish armies in England and Ireland, 1640-48’, Historical Journal, 52:3 (2009).
Laura A.M. Stewart, ‘War and politics in Scotland, 1644-51’ in M. Braddick, ed., Oxford Handbook of the English Revolution (Oxford, 2015).

Rethinking the Scottish Revolution: Covenanted Scotland, 1637–1651

Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016 Laura Stewart

Politics and War in the Three Stuart Kingdoms, 1637-49

Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2004 David Scott

God’s Fury, England’s Fire: A New History of the English Civil Wars

London: Allen Lane, 2008 Michael Braddick

A much more detailed narrative of the twelve years 1637-49.

Print and Public Politics in the English Revolution

Cambridge, 2013 Jason Peacey

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The letters and journals of Robert Baillie Robert Baillie (1602-1662) was a Glasgow minister who supported the Covenant, despite initial reservations about attacking the episcopal office, and soon became one of the Kirk’s foremost polemicists during the 1640s. He was a commissioner to the Westminster Assembly of Divines and well-connected in London presbyterian circles. His letters and journals are both quotable and oft-quoted, but the full collection of printed and manuscript material produced by Baillie, of which the published volumes are only a part, remain understudied. They are a vital source for understanding Anglo-Scottish relations in this period. The volume available here covers the First English Civil War (1642-46).
Letters and Journals of Robert Baillie: Volume 3, 1642-1647 (Edinburgh, Bannatyne Club, 1841).
The quarrel between the earl of Manchester and Oliver Cromwell Edward Montagu, 2nd earl of Manchester, was a puritan parliamentarian who took command of the Easter Association army in 1643. By the summer of 1644, he appears to have become convinced that the war should be prosecuted only insofar as it would bring about the opening of negotiations with the king. This brought him into conflict with Oliver Cromwell, his lieutenant-general of horse, who believed peace would come about only once Charles’s forces had been defeated entirely. This collection of papers shows how the intervention of the Scottish Covenanters exacerbated the growing divisions amongst the parliamentary alliance over the conduct of the war, the terms to be offered to the king, and the future of the church.
The Quarrel Between the Earl of Manchester and Oliver Cromwell: An Episode of the English Civil War, ed. John Bruce and David Masson (London, Camden Society, 1875).